Rising majestically from the heart of Hawaii’s Big Island, Mauna Kea is not just a dormant volcano; it’s a sacred and revered place in Hawaiian culture. This stunning volcanic peak reaches an elevation of 13,796 feet (4,205 meters) above sea level, making it the highest point in the entire state of Hawaii. Mauna Kea is not only a geological wonder but also a place of deep spiritual significance and an internationally renowned center for astronomy and stargazing.
Hawaiian meaning “Mauna a Wākea,” Mauna Kea is the name of a dormant volcano on the Hawaiian island. At 4,207.3 m (13,803 ft) above sea level, its top is the second-highest mountain of an island on Earth and the highest point in the state of Hawaii. The summit is around 38 meters (125 feet) higher than its larger neighbor, Mauna Loa. With a wet prominence of 4,205 m (13,796 ft), ranking fifteenth in the world among mountains, and a dry prominence of 9,330 m (30,610 ft), Mauna Kea is very conspicuous topographically for its height.
Because of its dry prominence, which is higher than Mount Everest’s elevation above sea level of 8,848.86 m (29,032 ft), some authorities have declared Mauna Kea, with its submarine base, to be the world’s highest mountain. Based on topographic isolation, Mauna Kea is rated eighth.
It passed the most active shield stage of life hundreds of thousands of years ago since it is around one million years old. Its lava is more viscous in its present post-shield form, giving it a steeper profile. Its adjacent volcanoes don’t have the same harsh aspect as this one because of late volcanism, which also caused cinder cones to form, rift zones to become dispersed, glaciers to accumulate on the top, and weathering caused by the dominant trade winds.
Since its last eruption between 6,000 and 4,000 years ago, Mauna Kea is believed to be dormant.
Tallest Mountain in the World
The north face of Hawaii’s Big Island is home to the 13,796-foot (4205-meter) Mauna Kea Volcano, which towers over the beaches of Kohala. enormous Standing 33,476 feet (10,204 meters) above its base on the Pacific Ocean bottom, Mauna Kea is the world’s highest mountain. In contrast, Mount Everest is the tallest mountain on Earth, rising 29,029 feet (8,848 meters) above sea level.
The age of Mauna Kea exceeds one million years. It is not regarded as extinct, even though the last eruption is thought to have happened about 4500 years ago. Since it is a dormant volcano, there is still a chance that it will erupt once again in the future.
Recent seismic activity beneath Mauna Kea Volcano has raised concerns about a possible eruption, though it’s important to note that earthquakes aren’t always direct indicators of imminent volcanic activity. Nevertheless, scientists anticipate that Mauna Kea will experience another eruption in the future.
To closely monitor subsurface movements, seismometers and a single GPS receiver (operated by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory) are strategically positioned on Mauna Kea itself. Additional monitoring instruments are placed on Mauna Loa to the south and Kohala to the north, providing scientists with critical data.
As with all volcanoes on Hawaii Island, Mauna Kea is a shield volcano. These types of volcanoes are characterized by their large, wide, and gently sloping sides. The summit of Mauna Kea, shown in the image below, is a classic example of a shield volcano.
This shape is a result of the fluid lava that flows gently across vast distances during eruptions, forming broad sheets and layers as it cools. This type of eruption is commonly referred to as a “Hawaiian eruption” due to its prominence in the Hawaiian chain.
The Cultural Significance of Mauna Kea
In the Hawaiian language, “Mauna Kea” is a shortened version of “Mauna a Wakea.” Wakea represents the sky father, making Mauna a Wakea the mountain that belongs to the sky. The name is often interpreted as “White Mountain” due to the frequent presence of snow at its summit. Mauna Kea holds immense sacred value in Hawaiian culture.
If you plan to visit the summit, prepare for cold weather. Even when there’s no snow, temperatures can be 40 degrees or more cooler than at the beach. Keep in mind that the road to the top is often closed due to snow and high winds, so it’s essential to check the current conditions at the Mauna Kea Weather Center before your journey.
Hiking on Mauna Kea
A short trail of approximately 0.3 miles (0.5 km) leads from the top of the summit road to the actual summit of Mauna Kea Volcano. The views from this vantage point are truly spectacular, but be prepared for high winds and cold temperatures.
For those seeking a more challenging adventure, consider a hike to Lake Waiau, located at an elevation of 13,025 feet (3,970 meters). The easiest starting point for this hike is approximately 2 miles below the Mauna Kea summit. Hikers should be in good physical condition, wear appropriate hiking shoes (no sandals), and dress warmly.
From the ridge above the lake, you can catch a glimpse of some of the telescopes at the Mauna Kea Observatory.
The Mauna Kea Observatory
The Mauna Kea Observatory is a world-renowned astronomical research facility with more than a dozen giant telescopes aimed at exploring the depths of space. The observatory’s location offers clear and crisp high-altitude air, providing breathtaking views in all directions.
The image of the Mauna Kea Observatory below was captured from the slopes of Mauna Loa, approximately 20 miles to the south of the Mauna Kea summit.
Mauna Kea Summit Tour
A visit to the Mauna Kea Observatory is a must, and one of the best ways to experience it is through the Mauna Kea Summit Tour. You’ll travel in the comfort of a luxury SUV to the summit of Mauna Kea, where you can admire the impressive array of telescopes and enjoy views that seem out of this world, nearly three miles above the ocean.
During the journey to the summit, you’ll make a stop at the Onizuka Center for International Astronomy Visitor Information Station. This serves as an important acclimatization point to the high altitude. The visitor center offers a wealth of information, educational videos about the volcano and its telescopes, and a well-stocked gift shop. Light snacks and drinks are provided before continuing to the summit.
Driving to the Top of Mauna Kea
While it is possible to drive to the Mauna Kea summit and Observatory, the 7-mile road beyond the visitor center can be treacherous. It’s highly recommended to use a 4-wheel drive vehicle due to the rough, steep, and unpaved sections of the road. In fact, most rental car companies explicitly forbid their vehicles from being driven on the Mauna Kea summit road. Therefore, joining a Big Island volcano tour is often the safest and most enjoyable option.
Even if you’re driving your own car, it’s wise to spend some time at the Visitor Information Station to acclimatize to the high altitude. The air is significantly thinner at this elevation, so it’s essential to drink plenty of water and stay at the visitor center for at least 30 minutes before proceeding to the top.
At the summit, there’s a short yet steep path that leads beyond the parking area to the actual Mauna Kea summit. This walk offers breathtaking views. Alternatively, you can explore the impressive array of Mauna Kea telescopes and stay for a mesmerizing sunset. Sunsets at nearly three miles high are known for their dramatic beauty.
If you decide not to make the full ascent, the drive along Highway 200, crossing the Humu’ula Saddle (the Saddle Road), offers fabulous vistas of both Mauna Kea Volcano to the north and Mauna Loa Volcano to the south on clear days. This drive is a scenic delight that shouldn’t be missed.
In summary, Mauna Kea is a geological marvel and a site of cultural significance. Whether you’re interested in astronomy, hiking, or cultural exploration, a visit to Mauna Kea promises to be a memorable experience.
- Geological Wonder: Mauna Kea is one of the five volcanoes that formed the Big Island of Hawaii, and it’s considered the tallest mountain when measured from its base on the ocean floor. The entire mountain measures over 33,000 feet (10,000 meters) from its submerged base to its summit, making it the world’s tallest mountain when measured in this way.
- Cultural Significance: In Hawaiian culture, Mauna Kea is considered a sacred realm and a bridge between Earth and the heavens. It’s associated with several deities and is considered a place of spiritual connection.
- Astronomy Hub: Mauna Kea’s summit is home to the world-famous Mauna Kea Observatories, a cluster of research telescopes operated by observatories from around the world. The mountain’s high elevation, clear skies, and minimal light pollution make it one of the best places on Earth for stargazing and astronomical research.
Activities and Attractions:
- Stargazing: Mauna Kea is renowned for its spectacular stargazing opportunities. Visitors can join guided tours or drive to the visitor information station at the 9,200-foot level to observe the night sky. The lack of light pollution and high elevation create optimal conditions for experiencing the cosmos.
- Cultural Tours: Guided cultural tours are available to educate visitors about the mountain’s significance in Hawaiian culture. Visitors can learn about the legends, myths, and spiritual practices associated with Mauna Kea.
- Hiking: While reaching the summit is restricted due to its sacred nature and observatory facilities, there are hiking trails at lower elevations, offering breathtaking views of the surrounding landscapes. The Pu’u Huluhulu Trail is a popular choice, featuring native plants and petroglyphs.
- Visitor Information Station: Located at the 9,200-foot level, the visitor information station provides exhibits, information about Mauna Kea, and telescopes for daytime solar viewing.
How to Get There:
- Mauna Kea is accessible from the Big Island of Hawaii. Visitors can reach the visitor information station by driving along the Saddle Road (Route 200), which connects Hilo on the east side and Kailua-Kona on the west side of the island.
- Due to the high elevation and rapid altitude gain, visitors are advised to take precautions against altitude sickness. It’s recommended to acclimate at lower elevations before ascending to Mauna Kea’s summit.
Mauna Kea’s significance extends beyond its geological splendor. It’s a place of cultural reverence, astronomical discovery, and awe-inspiring natural beauty. Visitors to Mauna Kea have the unique opportunity to connect with both the celestial realm and the deeply rooted spiritual practices of Hawaii. Whether you’re interested in stargazing, hiking, or immersing yourself in Hawaiian culture, Mauna Kea offers an extraordinary experience that leaves a lasting impact on all who visit this sacred summit.
Mauna Kea vs Ol Doinyo Lengai:
When it comes to awe-inspiring natural wonders, the Earth showcases its remarkable diversity through majestic mountains. Mauna Kea, situated in Hawaii, and Ol Doinyo Lengai, found in Tanzania, are two such wonders, each with its own unique characteristics and geological significance.
Geological Origins and Formation
Mauna Kea: Hawaii’s Sleeping Giant
Mauna Kea, often referred to as “White Mountain” in Hawaiian, is a dormant volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii. It rises dramatically from the Pacific Ocean floor to its summit, reaching an astonishing height of approximately 13,796 feet (4,205 meters) above sea level. What makes Mauna Kea unique is not only its height but also the fact that it is the tallest mountain on Earth when measured from its base, which is submerged under the ocean.
This giant’s formation began approximately one million years ago, evolving through a series of volcanic eruptions and eruptions. The mountain comprises layers of basaltic lava flows and pyroclastic materials, all contributing to its immense size and striking beauty. Today, Mauna Kea is characterized by its snow-capped summit during the winter months, creating a surreal contrast against the Hawaiian tropical landscape.
Ol Doinyo Lengai: The “Mountain of God”
In contrast to Mauna Kea, Ol Doinyo Lengai, known as the “Mountain of God” in the Maasai language, is an active stratovolcano located in the East African Rift Valley of Tanzania. Although it doesn’t reach the same heights as Mauna Kea, standing at around 9,650 feet (2,880 meters), Ol Doinyo Lengai is unique for its rare carbonatite lava eruptions. This type of lava is unlike the more common basaltic or andesitic lava found in most volcanoes.
Ol Doinyo Lengai’s lava is notably cooler and less viscous, creating a distinctive black and white landscape at its summit due to the presence of natrocarbonatite. This unique geological feature sets Ol Doinyo Lengai apart from other volcanoes and makes it a geological wonder in its own right.
Mauna Kea: A Sacred Site
For the native Hawaiians, Mauna Kea holds immense cultural and spiritual significance. The mountain is believed to be the meeting point between Earth and the heavens, serving as a link between the physical and spiritual realms. It is revered as a sacred site, home to various deities and the resting place for Hawaiian ancestors.
Over the years, Mauna Kea has also become an epicenter for astronomical research, boasting world-renowned observatories at its summit. The mountain’s cultural significance, combined with its scientific importance, has led to complex and ongoing debates regarding its use and preservation.
Ol Doinyo Lengai: A Maasai Heritage
In Maasai culture, Ol Doinyo Lengai is considered a vital part of their heritage. The Maasai people, who inhabit the region around the mountain, view it as a divine entity, associated with the gods and their well-being. This spiritual connection has played a role in preserving the mountain and its unique geological features.
Tourists who visit Ol Doinyo Lengai often have the opportunity to engage with the Maasai people and learn about their customs and traditions. This cultural exchange makes a trip to the “Mountain of God” not only a geological adventure but also a rich cultural experience.
Experiencing the Mountains
Mauna Kea: A Stargazer’s Paradise
Mauna Kea offers a one-of-a-kind experience for stargazers and astronomy enthusiasts. Its high elevation, clear skies, and minimal light pollution make it an ideal location for observing the night sky. Visitors can access the summit via a well-maintained road, where they can enjoy breathtaking views of the cosmos through powerful telescopes.
In addition to stargazing, Mauna Kea provides opportunities for hiking, wildlife viewing, and immersing oneself in the unique flora and fauna of Hawaii’s highest peak. It’s a destination that caters to both scientific curiosity and natural beauty.
Ol Doinyo Lengai: A Volcanic Expedition
Ol Doinyo Lengai, on the other hand, offers a different kind of adventure. Climbing this active volcano provides a thrilling experience for those seeking a geological adventure. Trekkers can explore the rugged terrain, witness the unique natrocarbonatite lava, and take in panoramic views of the Rift Valley.
For the culturally inclined traveler, the opportunity to engage with the Maasai people and gain insights into their traditional way of life is an invaluable aspect of visiting Ol Doinyo Lengai.
Conservation and Sustainability
Both Mauna Kea and Ol Doinyo Lengai face challenges related to conservation and sustainability. Balancing the preservation of their unique natural features and cultural significance with the increasing demands of tourism and scientific research is an ongoing struggle for both sites.
Efforts are being made to address these challenges through sustainable tourism practices, respectful visitor guidelines, and cooperation with local communities. By supporting responsible travel to these remarkable locations, we can ensure that future generations can continue to appreciate the beauty and significance of Mauna Kea and Ol Doinyo Lengai.
In conclusion, Mauna Kea and Ol Doinyo Lengai are two incredible geological wonders that offer distinct experiences to travelers. While Mauna Kea beckons stargazers and those fascinated by Hawaiian culture, Ol Doinyo Lengai provides an adventure for volcanic enthusiasts and a chance to connect with the Maasai people. Both mountains are treasures of our planet, and their conservation is crucial to maintaining their beauty and significance for generations to come.
Similarities between Mauna Kea and Ol Doinyo Lengai
Mauna Kea and Ol Doinyo Lengai, despite their geographical and geological differences, share several similarities:
1. Geological Significance: Both Mauna Kea and Ol Doinyo Lengai are volcanoes, each with its unique geological attributes. Mauna Kea is a dormant shield volcano in Hawaii, known for its extensive lava flows, while Ol Doinyo Lengai is an active stratovolcano in Tanzania, famous for its rare carbonatite lava eruptions. Both volcanoes contribute significantly to our understanding of volcanic processes.
2. Cultural Significance: Both mountains hold immense cultural importance to the native populations. Mauna Kea is considered sacred by Hawaiians, associated with deities and their ancestors. Ol Doinyo Lengai is considered the “Mountain of God” by the Maasai people, and it plays a vital role in their spirituality and heritage.
3. Geological Exploration: Both Mauna Kea and Ol Doinyo Lengai attract geological enthusiasts and researchers from around the world. Scientists study these volcanoes to gain insights into various volcanic phenomena, including lava composition, eruption dynamics, and geological formations.
4. Unique Lava Types: Mauna Kea and Ol Doinyo Lengai are known for their distinctive lava types. Mauna Kea’s lava is primarily basaltic, while Ol Doinyo Lengai’s lava is carbonatite, a rare and unusual composition in the volcanic world. These unique lava types make both mountains stand out in terms of geological diversity.
5. Stargazing and Astronomy: Mauna Kea’s high altitude and clear skies make it an exceptional location for stargazing and astronomical research. Similarly, Ol Doinyo Lengai’s remote location in the East African Rift Valley provides excellent opportunities for astronomical observations.
6. Conservation Challenges: Both mountains face challenges related to conservation and sustainability due to increasing tourism and scientific research activities. Efforts are made to balance the preservation of their unique natural and cultural features with the demands of modern exploration.
Mauna Kea and Ol Doinyo Lengai, though geographically distant and distinct in many ways, share common threads in their geological, cultural, and scientific significance. These remarkable mountains offer valuable insights into the Earth’s geological processes and hold cultural importance for the communities that cherish them.