Rainbow Valley: Everest’s Open Air Graveyard

The glimmer sight on Rainbow Valley of scores of dead bodies lying along the pathway that snakes its way past this place to the peak of Everest is not an unusual site.  Yet, before gathering the sentiment of the route, climbers frequently experience Everest as an unpleasant gathering of exercises which impact all who adventure there. The primary is the ensemble to vanquish the climate and the mountains, referred to in The Lore of the Everests as “the boss valuable plaything.” That climbers on the soonest trips realized this was genuine is unclear, and their warriors were evidence of this. At base camp in 1921, George Ingle Finch set forward the primary diagram to climb over the icefall and up the left half of the East Rongbuk Glacier to the North Col. This climb, matched by the 1922 adventure up the icefall, the intersection and rising of the East Rongbuk, and location of the North Col in the spring of 1924, might be known as a forerunner to the mountain’s the norm. As finishing triumph, they were very nearly excessive. However, they prompted further efforts which have become extraordinary to the climbers who adventure today to Everest’s different districts.

As far back as Sir George Everest first pinpointed Mount Everest’s area in 1841, this most elevated crest on the planet has a solid fascination for mountain climbers. Furthermore, when a correspondent asked George Leigh Mallory why he needed to climb it, he erroneously and famously answered: “Since it’s there.” A considerable lot has occurred from that point forward. Sherpa Tenzing and Sir Edmund Hillary at last overwhelmed Everest in 1953. Messner included another part on May 8, 1978, by soloing the north face. What’s more, Reinhold did the principal rising of the East Kangshung face in 1983. Yet, very little of this has changed the fundamental reasons why climbers attempt Everest. It is as essential to them now as it was to George Mallory in the 1920s. Moreover, with the increase in numerous mediocre trips and business ascensions, it is considerably more conceivable now for the normal climber.

Mt. Everest is the word that probably has hung up in everyone’s tongue since its confirmation as the World’s Highest Mountain. Discover the hidden side of the majestic Mt. Everest, known as Rainbow Valley Everest. This fascinating and picturesque valley, located below the northern ridge of the mountain, is an area that holds a dark secret. Stretching above the altitude of 8000m, Rainbow Valley is a haunting site adorned with the remains of unsuccessful climbers. Indeed, the valley is an eternal resting place for those who have lost their lives in their pursuit of conquering the peak. As the name suggests, Rainbow Valley is a sight, with blue, red, orange, and green jackets adorning the deceased climbers. Alongside the bodies lie a colourful assortment of garbage, tents, cans, and oxygen tanks, creating a peculiar and vibrant landscape. This valley gives off the illusion of a rainbow from a distance, hence its popular name. Numerous climbers courageously attempt to scale Mt. Everest each year, with some achieving success and others forced to retreat. Tragically, some never return, perishing while ascending or descending the peak. This treacherous area above 8000m, known as the death zone, has claimed the lives of many climbers. Thin oxygen levels, harsh weather, and powerful winds define this perilous region. The path within the death zone is so narrow that only one body can fit on each step, and those who pass away are often pushed away from the route. Thus, Rainbow Valley is the final resting place for those unfortunate souls whose corpses remain eerily preserved in perpetuity.

Popular Trekking in the Everest Region

Transporting deceased individuals is an exceptionally hazardous undertaking. There is a reluctance amongst people to take on such a risk for those who have already passed away. Furthermore, it requires a team of individuals to move each body. Therefore, as the death toll increases in this area, the number of bodies that accumulate also increases. As a result, the formation of a region known as Rainbow Valley occurs. This provided a brief understanding of Rainbow Valley Everest. By now, you may have additional inquiries regarding Rainbow Valley. The subsequent article aims to address all conceivable queries about the Rainbow Valley and the Everest region.

Where is the death zone of Mt Everest

The Death Zone of Mt Everest is a treacherous and unforgiving place, situated above 8000m (26,247ft). Tragically, more than 200 individuals have lost their lives in this perilous area while trying to conquer the mighty peak. It has rightfully earned the chilling name, the Death Zone, due to the extreme and life-threatening conditions that prevail here, most notably the drastically low levels of oxygen. In this zone, the available oxygen is a mere fraction, only about one-third, of the standard level, posing a constant and imminent danger to climbers. As a result, climbers must carry additional oxygen tanks with them as they brave the ascent towards the summit. However, the scarcity or any issue with these oxygen tanks in such high altitudes becomes a critical and decisive factor that can lead to altitude sickness and, in the worst cases, even fatal outcomes.

Moreover, the pathway through the Death Zone is a veritable challenge in itself, as it is incredibly cramped and devoid of sufficient space for an orderly procession. This unfortunate situation has become all too apparent through the circulation of viral photos capturing the sheer number of climbers waiting in line, patiently and anxiously, to complete their arduous Everest climb. Within this very region, the Death Zone, climbers find themselves spending agonizing hours, particularly during the peak seasons when numerous expeditions make their brave attempts. It is a place where time seems to stand still as the oxygen levels deplete rapidly, and every step becomes a battle against the forces of nature. The air becomes thin, making even the simplest of tasks immensely difficult. Every breath feels like a precious commodity, obtained only through careful management and utilization of the supplemental oxygen supply. Climbers must navigate the treacherous terrain, knowing that a small misstep or a sudden change in weather can have catastrophic consequences. Despite the immense challenges and the looming spectre of danger, climbers continue to be drawn to the Death Zone, driven by an unrelenting desire to conquer the world’s highest peak. The allure of pushing human capabilities to the limit and standing on the summit of Mount Everest remains an irresistible temptation, even in the face of the grave risks involved. In the Death Zone, time seems both stagnant and fleeting – the hours out endlessly, yet every minute counts for survival. The climbers must persevere, their bodies pushed to the limits of endurance, their spirits tested by the harsh and unforgiving environment. Yet, amidst the struggle and the danger, a unique camaraderie emerges among these brave souls who embark on this extraordinary journey. The Death Zone of Mt Everest stands as a sobering reminder of the fragility of human life in the face of nature’s mightiest challenges. It serves as a stark testament to the willpower and determination of climbers to overcome insurmountable odds. With its treacherous conditions and harrowing tales, the Death Zone will continue to captivate and awe future generations, serving as a testament to the indomitable spirit of human adventure.

Why are the dead bodies piling up in Rainbow Valley Everest?

At an elevation above 8000m (26,247ft), lies the notorious Death Zone of Mt Everest. This treacherous region has claimed numerous lives, as it is characterized by perilously low levels of oxygen – any deprivation of this essential element invariably results in death. The narrow trail that leads to the summit within this death zone is so slender that it can barely accommodate a single body at a time. Consequently, deceased individuals within this area are gently nudged towards the region below, known as Rainbow Valley. Therefore, those who meet their demise in the death zone find their final resting place in Rainbow Valley, wherein their lifeless forms are either trampled upon or guided off the trails, descending to lower areas beneath the ridge. Chad Gaston, a recent adventurer who scaled Mt. Everest, recounted the unprecedented challenges he encountered while manoeuvring past incapacitated individuals during his ascent, including a man whose appearance resembled a mummy. Since 1922, over 300 climbers have tragically perished in this perilous death zone. In 2015, a catastrophic avalanche claimed the lives of at least 19 climbers. With time, the number of corpses in this area only continues to grow, while Rainbow Valley aptly showcases the macabre spectacle with its vibrant hues.

What happens to the dead bodies in the Mount Everest

In Rainbow Valley or the Death Zone of Mount Everest, what happens to the body that has been found there? However, the majority of the time, the body either stays in the death zone for an indefinite amount of time, like in Rainbow Valley, or it is occasionally found, even though recovering the body from that elevation is difficult or nearly impossible. It is quite unlikely that the helicopter rescue will be successful because of the strong wind. It is difficult to bring the body down for many reasons, including extreme weather, small paths, and high altitude. Additionally, it takes several different heads to recover a single body. Who in this world would do something like that for the body of a deceased person? This could be the case.

More than seventy thousand dollars will be required to retrieve the body. The cash that was paid has allowed for the recovery of numerous of the bodies that were found in the death zone up until this point. However, the recovery is not an easy process and may result in additional deaths. Two Nepalese mountaineers lost their lives in 1984 while they were attempting to retrieve a body from the death zone. However, even monetary compensation does not ensure the body’s recovery. Undoubtedly, no one is prepared to bring the corpse down lightly. As a result, the heap of dead bodies that existed in Rainbow Valley was formed.

What is the main cause of death on the Mount Everest

The dangerous region atop Mount Everest, known as the death zone, is the site of the majority of fatalities. Situated above 8000m, this perilous area presents numerous challenges such as thin oxygen levels, severe weather conditions, powerful winds, and a narrow trail. Even the tiniest misstep can lead to a deadly outcome, turning each step forward into a precarious dance between life and death. According to the 2019 Himalayan Database, around 5,000 climbers have reached Mount Everest’s summit. However, a total of 295 deaths have been recorded since 1924. In 1980, the mortality rate was below 1%. As cited by the BBC, avalanches were responsible for most deaths, accounting for approximately 41.6%. Acute Mountain Sickness was the cause of 22.2% of fatalities on the mountain. Falls and exhaustion are also frequent causes of death during climbs on Everest. During the period from the 1970s to the 1980s, the mortality rate reached its highest point at 2.2%, but it has steadily declined over time. In 2019, the recorded death ratio was 1%.Everest Base Camp Stories

The base camp of Mount Everest serves as the entry point for the journey to the summit. It is surrounded by numerous tent settlements where mountaineers stay before their ascent. In the peak season, the base camp transforms into a lively and vibrant hub, filled with various-colour tents. This camp is a final resting place for climbers before they continue their journey upwards. Here, mountaineers exchange their songs, share their experiences, and narrate their stories. The base camp is a place where ancient legends are whispered from one person to another. Among these famous tales are the ones that revolve around the rainbow valley and the bodies. The three most renowned stories are those of Green Boots Everest, Sleeping Beauty Everest, and Hannelore Schmatz..

Green Boots Everest

Located on the northeast corner of Everest, Green Boots Everest is a captivating sight that has captured the attention of the media. What makes it so remarkable is the motionless body found there, commonly known as Green Boots. This name comes from the distinctive footwear it wears – a pair of green boots – along with the oxygen tanks fastened securely to its back. Many believe that this lifeless figure is none other than Tsewang Paljor, an Indian mountaineer who mysteriously vanished while attempting to conquer the summit in 1996, along with two fellow climbers who are also missing. In an unexpected twist, the “green boot” entity has found refuge in a small cavern beneath the peak, becoming a guiding landmark for climbers embarking on their own challenging Everest journey. It is truly impressive that around 80% of climbers make a brief stop at this cavern during their ascent, solidifying its reputation as the most significant and well-known deceased presence in the renowned Rainbow Valley.

Sleeping Beauty Everest

This is a well-known account of another adventure that took place at Everest Base Camp. It revolves around Francys Arsentiev, an American woman who gained recognition as the first to successfully reach the summit of Mt Everest without the aid of supplemental oxygen. The incident occurred on May 22, 1998. Francys and her spouse embarked on the expedition, following in the footsteps of their previous mountain endeavors. Although her ascent went smoothly, she began to feel uneasy as she descended, overwhelmed by her surroundings. Unfortunately, she became trapped at the peak for three harrowing days, deprived of supplemental oxygen. Eventually, a team was dispatched to rescue her. However, upon discovering Francys, they were met with the distressing sight of her barely breathing, suffering from severe frostbite, and teetering on the brink of death. The team did their best to lower her down using ropes, but their efforts were futile as the task proved nearly impossible. Ultimately, they made the heartbreaking decision to leave her behind, to face her demise against the backdrop of majestic Mt Everest. Given her serene appearance, lying on her back as if in peaceful slumber, Francys was affectionately dubbed “Sleeping Beauty.”

Hannelore Schmatz- First woman to die on Everest

Hannelore Schmatz, a renowned German mountaineer, tragically succumbed on the treacherous slopes of Mount Everest, becoming the first woman to meet her demise on this formidable peak. In 1979, brimming with determination, Hannelore and her husband embarked on a remarkable journey to conquer the tallest mountain on Earth. Accompanied by a group of six fellow climbers and five skilled sherpas, they embarked on their formidable ascent. They successfully reached the summit with unwavering perseverance, reveling in their triumph. Nevertheless, the demanding journey downwards proved to be filled with unforeseen challenges. While most of the group returned to base camp unharmed, Hannelore and her companion, Ray Genet, were unfortunately absent from their ranks. Despite their vast knowledge and expertise in climbing, the harsh and grueling circumstances had greatly drained their physical and mental strength. Completely worn out, they decided to spend the night seeking sanctuary in the treacherous death zone of Mount Everest, accompanied by a dependable sherpa.That night a strong snowstorm hit that place, and Ray Genet died before dawn due to hypothermia. Hannelore and the sherpa made out of that dreadful night. While on their way down at 8290m, she fell down and sat with the aid of a backpack. And after that, she never got up. Her last few words were’ water, water”. Her corpse remained their open eyes and long hair blowing with the wind. For years, her body was passed by many climbers and observed.

Fascinatingly, five years later, two additional mountaineers lost their lives as they made an endeavor to retrieve Hannelore Schmatz’s remains. They were discovered entangled in their ropes on the majestic Mount Everest. Just a year following this incident, her body was carried away from the ridge by the mighty force of the wind. This sequence of events led to Hannelore Schmatz gaining recognition for her tragic demise on Everest.

The allure of Mount Everest

Everything about Everest creates an air of expectation. The world’s highest mountain is, in the expression of one climber, “a piece of magic in the sky…” For those who are high-spirited or who have an inquisitive mind, it is hard to ignore. Climbers are not unaware of the risks the mountain shows. Those who go there know they are likely to suffer, and those who have been there know there is a good chance they will suffer a lot. But it remains an experience for which they are prepared to pay heavily. This at least deserves an attempt to understand its irresistible appeal. George Mallory, England’s great pre-war climber, offered a surprising explanation of why he, in his epoch, twice tried to climb Everest: “Because it’s there” is not a reason adequate to itself. Mallory considered further and said, “We wished to explore all the mystery of that region itself…”

The treacherous nature of the mountain

Time and time again it has been stated that no mountain in the world presents such a formidable challenge as the world’s highest peak, Mount Everest. As the highest point on Earth at 8,848m above sea level, there is no disputing this claim. The daunting presence of the mountain builds fear into the hearts of prospective climbers as it rumbles and groans, a living entity with an ever-changing personality. Winds greater than 160km/hr batter the mountain for days on end, causing wind chill temperatures to plummet to below -80 degrees Celsius. The infamous jet stream blocks progress of climbers for days on end, bringing with it snow and ice to further hinder progression. Whiteout conditions, a state of blindness in which the horizon cannot be differentiated from the sky, leaves climbers off balance and susceptible to the many dangers which lurk on the mountain. It is these dangers and the almost comic style of survival against the elements that has led many mountaineers to deem Everest as an almost living being, an entity with a soul determined to dispel any person’s intent to conquer it.

The significance of Rainbow Valley

Mount Everest has long held its reputation as the ultimate test of human endurance in terms of mountain climbing. With an invasive, unpredictable nature, it is considered by many to be the most dangerous place to try to climb. This dangerous reputation is not, however, why Rainbow Valley is significant. Rainbow Valley is the name given to a certain part of Mount Everest which lies at 28,000 feet. It is so named due to the many colorful tents littering the landscape when the IMAX expedition team found it in summer 1996. This site was in fact a camp set up by an expedition that aimed to make the summit on June 2, 1996, but was met with tragedy. Out of a party of 8 climbers, only 2 reached the summit and several turned back due to the ailing condition of one of their party members.

On the way down, several incidents led to extra time needed to be spent at high altitudes, which is never good for a climber who is using precious oxygen supplies. This team should have never spent an extra night at Camp 5 and because of bad communication, 2 climbers stumbled into Camp 4 at South Col very late in the evening, after a long and hard day. The remaining 4 climbers, having run out of oxygen, were forced to spend a night in an overhanging ice cavern at an altitude of 27,200 feet. With the thin air and lack of oxygen, only 2 of these climbers were in any fit state to help themselves, those who agreed to climb down to Camp 5 the next day in search of help. It was to no avail, another party was now pinned inside Camp 5 by a storm and help would not be coming. The 2 climbers that had been in the ice cavern with their 2 less able companions made the hard decision to abandon their friends and make for Camp 5 by themselves. They had managed to contact base camp by radio and help was on the way up from Camp 3. It was just past midnight on June 4 that the 4 climbers in the ice cavern were caught in an avalanche. This was witnessed by the 2 climbers who had just left and although they could see a snow slide, they were not sure of what really happened until they spoke to people at base camp. This tragedy was the start of a chain of events that led to the worst disaster on Mount Everest, 15 deaths on 3 and 4 May 1996. Come 11 am on June 4, the 2 climbers who had descended into Camp 5 radioed to their friends and confirmed that 4 were missing, that was the last that was ever heard from these 4 climbers and it has been assumed that they all perished on the night of June 4. Rainbow Valley is located at the foot of the South Col and is where many of the climbing parties on the SE ridge route will have pitched their high camps. The events that led to the tragedy of June 4 and the resulting events of the May 1996 disaster have changed methods on how certain expeditions should be run and it has greatly increased the awareness of the dangers of getting caught at high altitudes in the death zone. This event is significant to Mount Everest because it perhaps marks the end of an era where Everest was considered the ultimate achievement in the realm of possible. Nowadays, Everest is an attainable goal for many climbers of various experience and skill level and had it not been for these tragic events, the step by step approach that high altitude mountaineering requires may have never been realized.

Early expeditions to Rainbow Valley

Excitement about Rainbow Valley and the possibility of discovering a route to the Western Cwm, and hence onto the Southwest face, led to a number of expeditions to this area. The members of the first of these expeditions, in 1966, were literally pinned down by a series of storms at about 18,000 ft, above Pyramid Pass. There was only a momentary clearance in the weather and the brief tantalizing sight of the Valley itself. Twigt and Wadsley, members of the 1966 and 1969 British expeditions, twice commenced the descent to the Valley with the intention of climbing in it, but in both cases were driven back by severe weather. The U.S. Navy organized an ambitious assault on the valley and the Cwm from the head of the Khumbu Glacier in autumn 1969, with secret plans for the Marines to enter the valley in the summer of 1971 if the first attempt was successful. High hopes were dashed as 16 days of incessant snowfall forced retreat in a complete state of disorganization with only two assaults on the weather. At one stage it was not possible to descend the snow slopes to the Base Camp because of the depth of the new snow and it was during a forced bivouac in the upper Cwm that avalanche casualties occurred. In October and November 1973, Dyurgerov and Frenchmen from the International School of Mountaineering Scotland, led two attempts to reach the Valley but both were frustrated by the weather. The High Altitude Physiology Research Unit of the Queen’s Medical Centre commenced work on the Khumbu Glacier in 1978 and the following year with the late Mike Ward as leader, directed a major assault on rotation to the Western Cwm, by way of the glacial ice fall from the head of the Valley. Running short of time and suffering from insufficient acclimatization, the expedition was again turned back by bad weather, though work in the Cwm area was partially successful.

Challenges of Exploring Rainbow Valley

As mentioned above, only 2 days of the author’s 3rd and 4th visits to explore Rainbow Valley itself were logistically successful, and in fact, the 1975 and 1985 expeditions both failed to reach the Valley. This serves to highlight the major difficulties experienced in moving above Base Camp at any given once, and the expenditure of time and energy for small reward puts a serious strain on the resources of “hill slogging” expeditions to the Valley.

This includes not only camping, cooking, and climbing equipment, but also several days’ food, fuel, and medical supplies. Porters are not available in this area. The load carrying capacity of the average Western visitor is about 40-50 lb at the altitude of Base Camp, and significantly less when acclimatizing higher on the mountain. Redistributions of loads are time-consuming, difficult, and energy-sapping, and with a small team of 4-6 people, this means several carries to transport the amounts of equipment necessary. During the author’s expedition in 2000, 400 man-hours were expended dragging equipment and supplies from Base Camp to the concession above Rainbow Valley, this being only the first stage in the setting up of a camp in the Valley.

Everest Base Camp lies at 17,575 feet above sea level, and this is the starting point for a typical expedition into the Valley. There are no villages or Sherpa settlements anywhere in the vicinity of the Valley, and the whole of the open ground between the Base Camp and the Valley has a steep gradient and is covered in small scree. Because of this, expeditions which go to Rainbow Valley must carry everything they might possibly want from Base Camp with them, a distance of some 2 miles as the crow flies.

Extreme altitude and thin air

Altitude and cold will have a serious impact on the energy balance of the human body and nutritional intake is often inadequate for working in such environments. The colder environment will increase energy demands to maintain body temperature at a time when food intake is reduced due to lower appetite and difficulty cooking. High altitude decreases food intake as it reduces the quantity of blood reaching the stomach and increases its rate of passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Below 4000 m, it is normal to lose weight at altitude and individuals can face a fine line between losing enough weight to become malnourished and losing too much to maintain physical performance.

Understanding how a hostile cold environment affects the human body is important for scientists working in such locations as the head of Rainbow Valley. The effects of wind chill and extreme altitude are non-linear and it is difficult to model and predict how these will affect the body in specific locations. Often temperature is recorded from a local weather station or online source but this may not accurately reflect the conditions experienced at a research site. Winter temperatures at altitude are likely to be at least 5-8°C colder than in the valley bottoms. During a field campaign, scientists will be exposed to these temperatures for many hours each day and the cold will have a far greater impact due to reduced movement and the requirement of spending the night in a tent at extreme altitude.

The remote location and high altitude of the valley mean that Sherpas and scientists are at risk of serious altitude-related illness or death. Deboche and colleagues have conducted research at the head of the valley at an altitude of 5700 m. Altitude affects the human body in a number of ways. The decrease in atmospheric pressure means that the partial pressure of oxygen in the Himalayas is only 40 kPa, compared to sea level where it is 70 kPa. This represents a 43% decrease in available oxygen which can significantly affect physical and mental performance. Usually, the body adapts to altitude over 7-10 days by increasing the production of red blood cells, a process which increases oxygen carrying capacity. However, levels of physical fitness still decline and it is not until lower altitudes are returned to that the individual can perform at the same level. Those with pre-existing medical conditions are at a higher risk of exacerbating these conditions and a small proportion of individuals may develop life-threatening high altitude illness such as High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) or Cerebral Edema (swelling of the brain).

Avalanche risks and unstable terrain

The area surrounding Everest experiences frequent snowstorms early in the climbing season. These storms often sweep a vast amount of snow from the mountain, accumulating in massive build-ups on the slopes of the Valley. The build-up of snow can release heavy avalanches which have proven to be a serious threat to life in Rainbow Valley. Lethal avalanches are considered an annual risk to the local community between the months of March and August. High altitude and the steep slopes synonymous with the Valley make it a prime location for snow collection and habitual avalanche activity. An understanding of the types of avalanches which occur here and their frequency will enable future predictions of when and where they are likely to happen, ultimately leading to a safer environment for the various Valley users.

Human Remains in Rainbow Valley

The Khumbu climber’s cemetery, “Rainbow Valley,” is beneath the Khumbu Icefall’s terminus. Here is a place which represents an eternal memorial to numerous untimely deaths ending the human journey. The phenomena of war and climbing accidents are not dissimilar in trauma, except war is an intended human activity and the chance of death is more frequently predictable. Each victim of a climbing/mountaineering accident had it in his/her heart to accept the risk for a vision quest of a higher calling. And following the myth, each lost climber has become enshrined in the landscape as he/she sought a higher meaning or reunion with the soul toward spiritual attainment which evaded him/her in the living physical world.

While standing in front of a cross with familiar names etched into its plywood surface – Scott Fischer, Rob Hall, Andy Harris – the meaning of the word ‘graveyard’ transcends preconceived ideas of a lonely hilltop or dark, Enid Blyton-esque countryside. With one more granite memorial unveiled earlier this summer, the impression at the back of the mind is akin to a light licking at the edge of consciousness, illuminating discomfort marks. What really makes this place a graveyard decide to broad of a term, and are the entities deeming it so considering the relevance to those who never returned from the mountain?

There are in fact no graves at the valley, or any native Sherpa Hindu-Buddhist burial sites at the Gokyo, Thame, Khumjung or Namche regions; the spirits of passed on loved ones having departed to other realms and it been the sharpest sorrow for the loss of life in the valley that Tashi and the International Porter Protection Group saw to move and restore the original wooden markers left in commemoration of two Canadian climbers who had been provided the fatal mistake of high altitude sleeping in a cave to the museum. The initial intention behind these 10 or so tin number plaques to a small 2 year long lasting project ending in about 2005 was to see that decisively preservable markers of all were at no more risk of disappearance due to weathering, oversight, or removal in effort of adding valley space for agriculture and animal grazing. What this inadvertently came to effect is an increased cluttering of the ages and nations of mountaineering death about Sagarmatha National Park.


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